STOP Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in the world by JSTOR. Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early- journal-content . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. 1 2 2 Journal of American Folk-Lore. RECORD OF AMERICAN FOLK-LORE. NORTH AMERICA. Algonkian. Delaware. Mr. A. T. Cringan's paper on "Iro- quois Folk-Songs," published in the Ontario " Archaeological Re- port " (Toronto, 1903) for 1902, contains the musical notation of three Delaware witch songs (p. 142) and two Delaware harvest songs (p. 150) with brief comments and explanatory notes. — Cheyenne. In the "Southern Workman" (vol. xxxii. pp. 173, 174) for March, 1903, Mr. Charles Johnston writes briefly of " The Sun-Dance Tradi- tion of the Southern Cheyennes." The Cheyenne "prophet" com- memorated by the " Sun-Dance " is Motse Iyoeff, who gave this people their social organization, and was a great religious teacher, but the traditional ceremony " is not strictly a dance, nor is it spe- cially connected with the sun." Athapascan. Navaho. Dr. Washington Matthews's " The Night Chant, a Navaho Ceremony " (Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., vol. vi. May, 1902, pp. xvi. 332. Public, of Hyde Southwestern Exped.), which is reviewed at length elsewhere in this Journal (vol. xv. pp. 61-64), would of itself alone make the contributions of American ethnologists to the study of primitive religions illustrious in the annals of science. It is the magnum opus of an investigator, who, while giving so much, modestly disclaims having discovered all that was to be learned about this great ceremony in which the social and the psychic life of a most interesting aboriginal people is involved. The Messrs. Hyde deserve the gratitude of the scientific world for enabling the American Museum to present in sumptuous form this monument of patient unprejudiced research. California. In the " American Anthropologist " (n. s. vol. v. pp. 1-26) for January-March, 1903, Dr. R. B. Dixon and Dr. A. L. Kroeber have an interesting and valuable article on " The Native Languages of California," which should be read by the folk-lorist. Lexical similarities in the words for "dog," "food," "eat," are noted. In some languages the word for " salmon " is related to the root for " eat " (food). Differences of culture correspond, to some extent, with the linguistic differences indicated. Eskimo. Under the title " Eskimomusik," the ethnological jour- nal "Globus" (vol. lxxxiii. pp. 138, 139) reprints, with comments, text and music of several Eskimo songs from Dr. Robert Stein's "The White World" (N. Y., 1902), which contains a section on Eskimo music. — A previous article in the same periodical (vol. lxxxii. 1902, pp. 263-270), entitled "Die Eskimos des Baffinlandes und der Hudsonbai." resume's, with 25 figures, the data in Dr. Franz Boas's Record of A merican Folk-Lore. 123 " The Central Eskimo " (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., N. Y., vol. xv. 1901). Iroquoian. To the " Archaeological Report " (Toronto, 1903) of Ontario for 1902, Rev. A. E. Jones contributes a paper on the " Iden- tification of St. Ignace II. and of Ekarenniondi " (pp. 92-136), which contains a number of interpretations of place-names — Ekarenniondi, "The Standing Rock;" Etharita, "The ever principal drying or maturing place ; " Scanonaenrat, " The one white sandy river bed ; " Gahoendoe (or Ahoendoe), " At the river-island ; " Ondiatana, " The island of the end of one point ; " Khinonascarant, " Beyond the trol- ling grounds at the opening of the strait ; " Arontaen, " Here there is a strait." The author believes that he has determined the position of the famous " Standing Rock " of the Petuns or Tobacco Nation. — In the same " Report " is published Mr. A. T. Cringan's study of "Iroquois Folk-Songs" (pp. 137-152). The musical notation, with comments and explanations, of 34 songs, is given, — of these, how- ever, 7 are Tutelo and 5 Delaware, consequently not Iroquoian, but belonging to these Indians long associated with the Iroquois. Of the Iroquois songs there are " bean songs " (3) used in connection with the bean or peach game ; women's songs (4), naked dance songs (3), medicine songs (3), bear dance song, snake song, green corn dance song, ahdonwah (song of joy), naming the boy, war-dance songs (2), buffalo-dance song and scalping song. The author con- cludes that " Iroquois song is based on something even simpler than the pentatonic scale." The rhythmical structure of the Iroquois songs " is strongly characteristic of the people themselves," and the " melodies " abound in subtle rhythmic combinations which would, in some instances, afford a severe test of the technical training of an average body of modern choristers." We learn, also, that "the mod- ern hymn tune, although set to verses in the native language, has a decidedly insipid effect when sung by an Indian in comparison with his own vigorous native melodies." Piman. In his paper on " Pima Annals " in the " American An- thropologist " (n. s. vol. v. pp. 76-80) for January-March, 1903, Dr. Frank Russell describes the "annals" kept by means of notched sticks discovered by him among the Pimas of southern Arizona. On these unornamented sticks transverse notches mark the years, while the events are marked by smaller notches or rude symbols. The "annals" for 1833-34, 1836-37, 1857-58, 1881-82 are recorded in this article, and a table of the events noted is given. In only one instance has a symbol come to have a conventional meaning. The oldest sticks date from 1833 — the meteoric shower of November 13. Dr. Russell has added the Pima to the small list of the Indian tribes known to have kept calendars or mnemonic records of this or related kinds. 1 24 Journal of American Folk-Lore. Siouan. Tutelo. Mr. Cringan's paper on "Iroquois Folk-Songs," cited above, contains the musical notation with brief explanatory comments of three adoption songs, three burial songs, and a morn- ing song of the Tutelos, a Siouan people, whose few remaining sur- vivors are still associated with the Iroquois. — Sioux. To the " Southern Workman " (vol. xxxii. pp. 79-84) for February, 1903, F. D. Gleason contributes a brief account of " Ration Day among the Sioux." The social functions of the day are touched upon. — In "Globus" (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, pp. 1-7) F. Weygold writes of "Das indianische Lederzelt im Kbniglichen Museum fur Volkerkunde zu Berlin." A brief account, with two illustrations and a colored plate, is given of a leather "medicine tent," which, since 1846, has been in the possession of the Royal Ethnological Museum in Berlin. On the tent are painted some 100 figures of various sorts, the central one being the great sacred pipe. Others are snakes, buffaloes, horses, human beings, birds, etc. Uto-Aztecan. Aztec. In the " Verhandlungen der Berliner Ge- sellschaft fur Anthropologic" (1902, pp. 445-467) K. T Preuss dis- cusses in detail (with 14 figures in the text) " Das Reliefbild einer mexikanischen Todes-Gottheit im Konigl. Museum fur Volkerkunde zu Berlin." The object in question belongs to the old Uhde collec- tion (chiefly from the Mexican plateau), and does not appear to have been noticed hitherto by investigators. The author treats also the general subject of Aztec death-deities. CENTRAL AMERICA. Weapons. Dr. K. Sapper's article on " Mittelamerikanische Waf- fen im modernen Gebrauche," in " Globus " (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, pp. 53-63), treats of the bows and arrows, spears, etc., still in use among many Indian tribes of Central America, — Lenca, Paya, Bribri, Jicaque, Sumo, Lacandons, Gautuso, Mosquito, — with comparisons with the corresponding weapons of ancient and modern Mexico (Aztec, Seri, Yaqui, etc.). The paper is accompanied by these plates. SOUTH AMERICA. Araucanian. Gerard de Rialle, in his paper "De l'age de la pierre au Chili," in the " Bulletins de la Societe dAnthropologie de Paris " (V e S., vol. iii. 1902, pp. 644-648), treats of piedras horada- das or pierced stones, called in Araucanian catancura, found in vari- ous parts of Chili, and the various theories as to their use. The con- clusion reached is that they were weights for the sticks with which the natives dug potatoes, etc., an opinion first expressed by Darwin, when he visited this part of the world during the voyage of the Beagle. Record of A merican Folk-Lore. 125 GuaikurtJ. In the " Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Ge- sellschaft in Wien" (vol. xxxiii. 1903, 1-128.) Theodor Koch pub- lishes a valuable study chiefly linguistic, of " Die Guaikuru-Gruppe," which is accompanied by a reproduction of Father Lozano's map of 1733 and a map showing the present distribution of the Guaikuru stock. Pages 2, 3 are occupied by a bibliography, pages 3-40, by ethnographic notes on the Guaikuru, Mbaya, Cadiveo, Kinikinao, Toba, Pilaga, Aguilot, Mokovi, Abipones, Payagua, Lengua, Guatchi, etc., and discussions of the signification of these and other ethnic names. The remainder of the paper is taken up with vocabularies, grammatical and phonetic discussions, etc., which add much to our knowledge of these languages. The vocabularies given are : Ca- diveo, Guaikuru, Toba. The notes on some of the names of ani- mals, etc., are very interesting. The discussion of the numerals occupies pages 1 12-125. — Payagua. In "Globus" (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, pp. 1 17-124) Dr. Theodor Koch writes at length of "Der Paradiesgarten als Schnitzmotiv der Payagua-Indianer," discussing in some detail the eight specimens (chiefly " medicine pipes " now in European museums. The length and other characteristics of most of these lead the author to conclude that these tube-like pipes have been developed from the cigar. The " Garden of Eden " motif t which forms the ornament upon them, has, he thinks, been copied from real pictures in the houses or churches of the missionaries. This paper is a valuable addition to the literature of metamerindian art. Omaguaca. In the " Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologic " (1902, pp. 336-341), E. v. Nordenskiold writes on " Pracolumbische Salzgewinnung in Puna de Jujuy." The ex- ploitation of salt is still carried on by the Indians of this region. At Huancar large numbers of stone axes have been found, which, from their form, weight, and mode of occurrence, the author considers to have been employed by the pre-Columbian inhabitants to break up the salt-blocks of the Salina grande, etc. Pano. The article of A. Reich and F. Stegelmann, "Bei den Indianer des Urubamba und des Envira," in " Globus " (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, pp. 133-137), which has a brief introduction by Karl von den Steinen, treats of the Kampa and Kunibo Indians of the Urubambai and the Tuare, Kashinaua, Jaminaua, etc., of the Envira. Dress and ornament, houses, food, ceremonies, music, fire-making, weapons, etc., are briefly noted. On page 135 are short vocabularies of Kampa, Piro, and Kunibo; on page 137 longer vocabularies of Kashinaua and Jaminaua. Exposure of the dead to be eaten by wild animals and vultures is practised by the Kampa. Head-deformation is known among the Kunibo. The circumcision of girls is attended 126 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. with ceremonials. A sort of mouth-bow musical instrument was made by a Kunibo youth. The Tauare tattoo themselves about the corners of the mouth. They have large shields covered with tapir skin. The Jaminaua cremate their dead. The author notes the in- creasing bitterness of feeling between the Indians and the whites on the upper Envira, etc. — The article of Professor W. Sievers on " Das Gebiet zwischen dem Ucayali und dem Pachitea-Pichis (Ost- Peru) " in the same periodical (vol. lxxxiii. 1903, 73-76) contains a few notes on the Kashibo, Konibo, Chipivo, and Kampa Indians. Patagonian. Dr. R. Lehmann-Nitsche's paper, " Weitere An- gaben liber die altpatagonischen Schadel aus dem Museum zu La Plata" (Verh. d. Berl. Ges. f. Anthr. 1902, pp. 243-350), contains some notes (pages 345, 346) on the burial customs of the Moluche, Puelche, and Tehuelche Indians, and a discussion (pages 347, 348) of the etymology of Tehuelche, the interpretation of which is still very doubtful. Peru. To the " Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fur An- thropologic" (1902, 341-343) Dr. Lehmann-Nitsche contributes a brief paper, " Noch einiges zu den verstiimmelten peruanischen Thonfiguren und ein Amputationsstumpf an einem Gefasse aus Alt- Peru." He concludes that the pre-Columbian clay-figure in question represents an amputation of the right leg, — the subject is a beggar. The vase belongs to the Meron collection. Tupi. Apiakd. Dr. Koch's paper on " Die Apiaka-Indianer " of the Rio Tapajos (Matto Grosso), in the "Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic " (1902, pp. 350-379) consists of a brief historical and ethnographic description (pages 350-360) and vocabularies (pages 360-379). The modern Apiaka is " a remark- able mixture of culture and primitivity." The men wear civilized clothes, but the women at home go naked. They are secretly poly- gamous, but credited with morality, and a spirit of labor, initiative, and progress. GENERAL. Games. In the " American Anthropologist " (n. s. vol. v. pp. 58- 64) for January-March, 1903, Mr. Stewart Culin has an article on "American Indian Games (1902)," in which he summarizes the results of his investigations since his discussion of this subject in the "Journal of American Folk-Lore" (vol. xi. pp. 245-252), and proposes the following classification : 1. Games of chance (a throw- ing-games, b guessing games. 2. Games of dexterity (a archery and modifications, b moving-target shooting, c sliding-stick on ground or ice, d ball in several highly specialized forms, e racing games more or less combined with ball). These constitute, par excellence, the games of Indian men and women, and games of all these classes are Record of A merican Folk-Lore. 127 found among the Indian tribes of North America. The variations in general do not follow linguistic differences, and " precisely the same games are played by tribes belonging to unrelated linguistic stocks." The Aztec games "appear to be invariably higher develop- ments of the games of the wilder tribes." Mr. Culin thinks that a central point from which progressive changes radiating north, north- east, east, and south probably existed in the southwestern United States. The games of the Eskimo "are all extensions of the same games we find among the Indians, but show always greater simpli- city, lack of tradition, and a degradation of form which would pre- clude their being regarded as the source of the Indian games." These games appear to be "the direct and natural outgrowth of aboriginal institutions in America," and moreover, " there is no evi- dence that any of the games above described were imported into America at any time, either before or after the conquest." The ceremonial aspects of some games are considered. The ball-games seem to have been least fruitful for comparative study. A. F. C. and I. C. C.